Energy and Environment Reporting for Texas

Want to Learn About a Nearby Dam? In Texas, Some Questions Are Off Limits

Texas has more dams than any other state in the country. This is a map of Texas dams from the USACE.

Texas has more dams than any other state in the country. This is a map of Texas dams from the USACE.

This is part three of a series looking at the infrastructure of dams in Texas, and what can be done to improve it. You can find part one here, and part two here.

In 1978 a massive storm hit the West Texas town of Albany. It dumped 23 inches of rain in just eight hours. Waters caused 9 deaths, flooded hundreds of homes, and broke through a local dam. Troy Henderson, who now works on the Brownwood Texas Lake Patrol, says since then he’s followed a simple rule.

“If I were to build a home somewhere, I’d make sure that if it was downstream from a lake that their dam is property maintained,” he told StateImpact Texas, “and the reason I say that is, I lived in Albany in 1978.”

The Federal Government echoes that advice. In the FEMA booklet “Living with Dams,” the agency urges people to “ask questions” about the condition and hazard rating of dams near their homes.

But here in Texas, no one needs to answer those questions.

“There are certain things that we are not allowed to share like the hazard classification of a dam or something that’s more related to homeland security,” Warren Samuelson, Manager of the Texas Dam Safety Program, explained to StateImpact Texas.

The reason is a 2005 opinion by the Texas Attorney General that keeps information about dams secret – citing concerns for homeland security. The results of that secrecy in Texas can be confusing.

Take the dam safety workshops presented by the TCEQ. They’re are filled with images and examples of Texas dams in surprisingly bad condition. But if you ask exactly where those structures are located, the agency refers you to the state Attorney Generals ruling.

At a presentation in August, the FEMA recommendations came up specifically. Dam owners were told that they did not have to provide information to their neighbors about their dams. At that workshop the TCEQ’s Warren Samuelson also said the Commission can’t give information to floodplain administrators. A fact that frustrates some public safety officials.

“I think that there is some things that public should be aware of, such as if they’re going to be the area that may be inundated with water from a flood,” Bill Smith, an emergency management director and floodplain administrator in Jasper County, East Texas, told StateImpact Texas.

“The dams in my area are in good shape as far as the larger dams. Now, the smaller dams, the private dams, I’m not that sure about because I don’t have the information.” – Bill Smith

While the TCEQ does give Emergency Action Plans to local emergency management coordinators, it only supplies other confidential information in a time of disaster if the need is deemed “legitimate.”  Like some others in public safety, Smith questions the benefit of keeping such important information secret.

“The dams in my area are in good shape as far as the larger dams,” he said. “Now, the smaller dams, the private dams, I’m not that sure about because I don’t have the information.”

Policies vary state-to-state and different federal agencies have still different policies. While the TCEQ guards some dam details, some local entities in Texas will happily share facts about dams under their control. The lack of a system of rules has not escaped the notice of policymakers, says Civil Engineer John Wolfhope. He sits on the National Dam Safety Review Board, a group that advises FEMA on Federal guidelines for dam safety.

“It’s a discussion going on at a national level to provide guidance on how this information should be treated.” Wolfhope told StateImpact Texas, “Unfortunately we’re still in a state of limbo as of this year.”

But he’s confident new recommendations will emerge soon. Once they are released, it will be up to the state of Texas to decide whether to follow them.


  • Some guy named Dave

    A good series of articles, Mr. Buchele. For an engineer who has worked in dam safety most of the last 30 years, it’s nice to see a well thought-out article about the subject in the popular press.

  • Our state is in total denial about so much because of the blinders they have had on for over 100 years. With the onset of “unconventional” oil and gas drilling that uses billions of gallons of water every year that must be disposed of in injection wells ~ we know this is already causing earthquakes. And it doesn’t take a geologist to understand that dams can be damaged by seismicity leading to catastrophic dam failure. It happened in 1963 with the Baldwin Hills Dam in southern California. It was never going to fail.


    • Some guy named Dave

      Strictly speaking, the failure of Baldwin Hills was not caused by seismicity, but by ASEISMIC movement of faults caused by oil extraction (combined with a rather bad design).

      • Nice try. From the video:

        “600 oil wells were located in the Inglewood Oil Field on the eastern edge of the Dam. And not only that, as the investigators discovered at the time, the oil was being extracted from these oil wells using a method of extraction that involved injecting water into the ground around the well at very high pressure. Back then, it was called, “pressurized extraction.”

        Investigators concluded that seismic activity was the “hidden factor” in this dam’s failure.”

  • Jeanne Davis

    Excellent series of articles. I learned a lot. Thank you for information that will have me checking on dams around our property.

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