Energy. Environment. Economy.

Indiana County township claims ecosystem has legal rights

clearfield county

Courtesy of Marianne Atkinson

The Irvin deep injection well in Clearfield County is operated by Exco Resources.

A battle over personhood is brewing in the tiny rural community of Grant Township in western Pennsylvania’s Indiana County. And that fight is now in the courts, where a federal judge will have to decide whether the “personhood” of an ecosystem trumps the “personhood” of a corporation.

Back in June, Grant Township banned frack water disposal wells. This came about three months after the Environmental Protection Agency approved a project by Pennsylvania General Energy Company to turn a former producing gas well, into a disposal well. Instead of drawing out gas, the company wants to inject waste water from its other oil and gas operations into the underground space now empty from the well’s prior production. Residents say they worry that the disposal well will leak the waste into the Little Mahoning watershed, and contaminate their drinking water supply.

In August PGE filed a federal lawsuit to reverse the ban, arguing the ordinance unconstitutionally strips the company of its rights. But residents are pushing a novel legal strategy. In a filing this month, attorneys for the community argue the Little Mahoning ecosystem itself has rights, and deserves standing with the courts. Recognition that corporations have legal standing, and therefore “personhood” in the eyes of the courts has a long history in the United States. But this may be the first time any court in Pennsylvania has had to decide whether an ecosystem has similar legal protections. The motion filed in November by attorneys representing Grant Township argues that nature is not simply property that can be owned, but that it has its own rights to “exist and flourish.”

For the Little Mahoning Watershed, its very right to exist is threatened by this litigation. If the Court strikes the ordinance, it would legally eliminate the Watershed’s rights, and also authorize PGE to engage in waste depositing activities that would physically impair those rights.

Grant Township resident Stacy Long admits it’s an abstract concept.

Diagram of a deep well injection disposal site.

Adapted from the National Energy Technology Laboratory / Environmental Protection Agency

Diagram of a deep well injection disposal site.

“If a corporation has the same rights as a human being to assert their will why not an ecosystem?” Long told StateImpact. “The ecosystem has a life, it has presence, it has being. The ecosystem can have a say in this.”

Grant Township’s ordinance banning the well is referred to as a “community bill of rights.” These ordinances have been promoted by the Community Environmental Legal Defense Fund, which promises to defend them in court. The nonprofit helped the city of Pittsburgh pass its ban on fracking. And several other Pennsylvania municipalities have passed their own versions of a community bill of rights.

Tom Linzey, the executive director of CELDF, says the ordinances are a result of frustration with state and federal regulations that he says don’t protect the environment and public health. Resident Stacy Long agrees.

“There’s no reason to believe that things won’t get sloppy,” said Long. “And when things get sloppy the only people who lose are the people who live here. The EPA is not accountable, the DEP [Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection] is not accountable and PGE is not accountable.”

Kevin Moody is an industry attorney with the Pennsylvania Independent Oil and Gas Association, which has petitioned the court to become a party to the case. Moody says he understands the ordinances come from a frustration with a perceived lack of environmental regulation. But he says the state has implemented strong safeguards against pollution and the municipalities cannot trump state and federal laws.

“These ordinances are basically setting up these little municipalities as their own countries,” said Moody. “They say that state and federal permits as well as state and federal laws that are inconsistent with their ordinance, they’re invalid. To me that’s ridiculous.”

Moody says the Community Environmental Legal Defense Fund acknowledges the constitutional protections afforded corporations, while encouraging towns to pass these ordinances.

“So we are very frustrated with the proliferation of these ordinances,” said Moody, “and we’re trying to figure out a way to stop this.”

Moody says the towns will continue to face legal action from the industry, which could be expensive and place the local lawmakers in jeopardy. Moody says one option is a civil rights action against the township supervisors, or the local district attorney could decide to file criminal charges. But Moody says he doesn’t think anything will deter CELDF from continuing to advocate for these ordinances.

“They are resolute in their mission which is to ban our operations,” said Moody.

Moody says it would be more productive for residents and township supervisors to work with the industry to resolve issues.

But Stacy Long says Grant Township had no other choice but to ban the deep injection well.

“I’m not a rule breaker,” said Long. “I’ve never even gotten a speeding ticket. Nobody here is like that. But we had to do something. We had to say that our rights are just as good, or greater, than a corporation’s rights.”


  • JimBarth

    Corporate “personhood”, with its pursuant legal rights, is ridiculous. Mr. Moody only sees the absurdity of this in the position of his opposition. At the end of the day, the undeniable fact is that waste injection wells are inherently polluting and dangerous, whether through incompetence, mismanagement, accident, spills, casing failure, and yes, earthquakes. Then there is the simple assault on the quality of life of everyone in the truck transport routes to this abomination called “injection well”. Frack the rights of the corporations, not the ecosystem.

    • dikmeover

      Liberals. The scourge of the earth

      • KravonJones

        You like to comment without any reason huh, mad at the world are we?

        • Jack Wolf

          He exhibits symptoms of a personality disorder.

      • Drewbacca the Bookiee

        So, you are ok with the taxpayer subsidizing PGE if any of that waste leaks out and causes an ecological disaster? This doesn’t have to be about liberal environmentalism, it’s basic economics and accountability.

  • Jack Wolf

    Considering all the earthquakes associated with these injection wells, no wonder the community is concerned. And, if you think it can’t happen here, I remind you of Youngstown’s earthquakes.

    • dikmeover

      heh heh heh . name me one thing you quacks make up that is not true

      • KravonJones

        So you’re saying he made it up and it is true? You may want to work on your English before posting again.

  • Guest

    Just wait until the watershed gets ruined. Will the EPA care? The DEP? The worthless company that put that toxic water there? I’m sure that the bill would be expensive to actually treat this water but since we are going to do it one way or another we might as well start now!

    • dikmeover

      wow. th e lunacy of you liberals just keeps getting sicker, desperate by the day

      • hmontaigne

        What do you mean, lunacy? The lunacy of trying to keep water drinkable, is that lunacy? What’s lunacy is treating the planet like a sewer, and polluters as if they are some kind of heroes because they have money. Their money was made from destroying the earth.

  • Jfiddle

    Here in Coos County OR we are pursuing a similar ordinance to combat an export terminal for fracked gas. Best of luck to you!

    • dikmeover

      Here in my world we call you liberals whack jobs. Go jump off a bridge

      • dikisadik

        Are you able to intelligently and factually rebut any of the comments, or are you only able to put forth immature sarcasm and name calling?

        • Jack Wolf

          That’s all he has… name calling. No facts, no evidence, nothing.

  • AlSever

    All of this was discussed years ago when we at DER permitted the injection well in Somerset County and the EPA permitted UIC well in Potter County. Any earthquakes yet? Everyone knows that the most probable disaster for Pennsylvania is the immediate collapse of both the Scranton-Wilkes-Barre area and the Pittsburgh area when an earthquake occurs and causes the vast under ground mine workings to collapse. Sooner or later, it will happen, with or without gas development.

    • Steve Todd

      Discussed then by the regulatory community. Since that didn’t protect us, We The People will now opt to discuss it in one of the co-equal branches to whom we’ve delegated our sovereignty. We’ll see if we can beat the polluters there.

      • AlSever

        “We The People”??? Sounds like our local TEA Party nuts!

        • Steve Todd

          …also like our local Founding Father nuts. Whiny little terrorists all of us…or none of us.

          • AlSever

            Founding Fathers did more than talk about issues. They put their lives on the line. For example, Immolation at the Gas grill section of Wal-Mart would indicate how serious one is regarding gas and climate change.

  • Schratboy

    Working with frackers is working with the devil that poisons us. No thanks.

  • Steve Todd

    If corporations are (now, by 5/4 ruling) people, surely the ecosystem is a much bigger person. Consider also that the Lauff family including the Carter family with fellow-person Range Resources in its lawsuit against both. We The People are finally getting suave (if not cynical) in our fight to render corporate personhood back to where it belongs: The Realm of Silliness.

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